Patient-Specific Stem Cells Could Be Major Breakthrough For Chronic Disease Treatments And Cures

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Δημοσίευση από medlsc Την / Το Πεμ Οκτ 06, 2011 1:06 pm

Patient-Specific Stem Cells Could Be Major Breakthrough For Chronic Disease Treatments And Cures

Science is probably overcoming a major milestone in patient-specific stem cell technology that will likely pave the way for cell-based therapies for life-threatening and/or chronic diseases, such as diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, etc., scientists from NYSCF and Columbia University reported in the journal Nature.

Dieter Egli, Scott Noggle and team have derived embryonic stem cells
from patients themselves by adding the nuclei of adult skin cells from
diabetes type 1 patients to unfertilized donor oocytes. An oocyte
is a female germ cell that is in the process of development - it is
produced in the ovary by an oogonium (an ancestral cell) and gives rise
to the egg (ovum) which can be fertilized. Put simply - an oocyte is an
egg before maturation.

These patient-specific stem cells can be transplanted into the patient
to replace diseased or damaged cells without being rejected by the
person's immune system. These cells look extremely promising for usage
in cell-replacement medicine, the authors wrote excitedly. However, they
stressed that further studies are necessary.

Senior scientist, Dr. Egli, said:

"The specialized cells of the adult human body have an insufficient
ability to regenerate missing or damaged cells caused by many diseases
and injuries. But if we can reprogram cells to a pluripotent state,
they can give rise to the very cell types affected by disease, providing
great potential to effectively treat and even cure these diseases. In
this three-year study, we successfully reprogrammed skin cells to the
pluripotent state.

Our hope is that we can eventually overcome the remaining hurdles and
use patient-specific stem cells to treat and cure people who have
diabetes and other diseases."
Patient-Specific Stem Cells Could Be Major Breakthrough For Chronic Disease Treatments And Cures 500px-Stem_cell_treatments.svg

NYSCF (New York Stem Cell Foundation) CEO Susan L. Solomon, said:

"The ultimate goal of this study is to save and enhance lives by finding
better treatments and ventually cures for diabetes, Alzheimer's,
Parkinson's and other debilitating diseases and injuries affecting
millions of people across the US and the globe.

This research brings us an important step closer to creating new healthy
cells for patients to replace their cells that are damaged or lost
through injury."
The researchers managed to transfer the nucleus from a patient's adult
skin cell into an oocyte without taking out the nucleus of that oocyte -
this resulted in reprogramming of the adult nucleus to the pluripotent
state. Pluripotent stem cells can divide and form cells
indistinguishable from it - they can turn into virtually any kind of
cell. They are also known as human embryonic stem cells.

In this study, embryonic stem cell lines where then derived from the oocyte containing the individual's genetic material.

These pluripotent stem cells cannot be used for therapy on humans
because they also have a copy of the oocyte chromosome - they have too
many chromosomes. Future studies will work on engineering the stem
cells so that they only have the patient's DNA.

The scientists in this study reprogrammed the skin cells of patients
with type 1 diabetes as well as healthy patients (control group) - and
derived pluripotent stem cells. The pluripotent stem cells could, in
theory, become insulin-producing beta cells. If this occurred, the
patient with diabetes type 1 would be cured.

People with diabetes type 1 do not have beta cells, hence they cannot produce insulin.

Study collaborator, Rudolph L. Leibel, MD, co-director of Columbia's Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, said:

"This is an important step toward generating stem cells for disease modeling and drug
discovery, as well as for ultimately creating patient-specific cell-replacement therapies for
people with diabetes or other degenerative diseases or injuries."

Robin Goland, MD, co-director of the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, said
that this study could pave the way for the usage of somatic cell
reprogramming to create stem cell banks which could be useful for
patients with a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Goland said:

"In theory, stem cell lines could be matched to a particular patient,
much as we do now when we screen an individual for compatibility with a
kidney transplant."

Co-author, Mark V. Sauer, MD, said:

"This project is a great example of how enormous strides can be achieved
when investigators in basic science and clinical medicine collaborate. I
feel fortunate to have been able to participate in this important
Zach W. Hall, PhD, said:

"This work represents a major advance toward the production of patient-specific stem cells for
therapeutic use by demonstrating that the nucleated oocyte has the ability to completely
reprogram the nucleus of an adult human cell."
Hall used to be Director of the National Institute of Neurological
Disorders and Stroke, he was also President of the California Institute
of Regenerative Medicine.

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